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Idealizing the Role of Women in Art: The Impressionists

Idealizing the Role of Women in Art: The Impressionists

Introduction
In 1852, after a coup d’état, Napoleon III set about to create Paris as the center of European culture.
Georges-Eugene Haussman was hired to design and oversee the transition of Paris from a medieval
city to a world-class cultural center. For the individuals who lived in Paris at the time this was a major
undertaking that added a much different kind of life and pride among Parisians. The streets were
broadened, outdoor fountains and parks were built, and buildings, such as the new Paris Opera,
became landmarks. At this time, Japan was opening itself up to Western traditions and sending its
art works out for exhibition. Of particular interest to the artist in Paris were the wood-block prints.
Artists living and working in Paris collected these prints and attended the gallery openings. Many
were inspired by the broad flat expanses of color, the distinct outline, the subject matter, and the
focus on the landscape. Other new inventions also helped to change artistic direction during this
period away from the classical and academic to the modern. The invention of the tin paint tube
allowed artists to paint outside; new folding easels made it possible to work easier in the out-ofdoors;
new theories in optics inspired the artists to examine the impact of light, shadow, time of day,
and year upon objects. What was born out of all of this was an artistic movement called
Impressionism.
Learning objectives
By the end of this unit you should be able to:
1. discuss the urban renewal that took place in Paris at mid-nineteenth century;
2. describe the impact of Japanese art on mid-nineteenth century French art;
3. state the type of art that was supported by the French Academy;
4. define Impressionism;
5. compare and contrast the work of the male artists of the Impressionist movement with those of
the two female members;
6. analyze the difference in the work of the male artists with those of the females; and
7. discuss the work of Utamaro, Eisen, Kuniyoshi, Hokusai, and Hiroshige.
Assigned readings
Read all of chapter 22, “Nineteenth-century Impressionism.”
How to proceed
1. Review the key terms and create a new flash card for each one. As you proceed through the unit
add the definition to each card.
2. Read the study notes and review the self-test questions in preparation for the readings below.
3. Read all of chapter 22 “Nineteenth-century Impressionism.”
Introduction to Art 2A FAAH 1040 Unit 7 2
4. Complete the learning activities.
5. Complete the self-test questions.
Key terms
Edo
Impressionism
Japonisme
Tokugawa Shogunate
ukiyo-e
Yoshiwara
Before proceeding you should review the relevant key terms. The key terms are bolded within the
course study notes but not in the Adams text, so read carefully. If you come across additional terms,
which are not listed, create a new flash card, define the additional key term, and post it to the course
discussion area.
Study notes
Paris at mid-nineteenth century
Under the rule of Napoleon III the city of Paris thrived. The Emperor appointed Georges Eugene
Haussman to oversee a series of improvements to the city, including its infrastructure and all of the
public spaces and buildings. Completed improvements included new water and sewage systems,
public parks, the Opera House, the Palais des Tuileries, and improvements to the Louvre. In their
visions, Napoleon III and Haussman changed Paris from a medieval city to the grand cultural center
it is today. Paris was like other urban centers of the period being rebuilt as a modern city to provide
attractive living spaces for the growing bourgeois population, which had become rich through the
ownership of industries. While the rich were attracted to all the glitter and cultural opportunities,
critics of the new city saw only the displacement of thousands of poor families who could no longer
afford to live in the expensive new fashionable neighbourhoods.
In 1871 France was defeated in the Franco-Prussian War. As a result, an insurrectionary
government was established, although short-lived. The rebellious leaders wanted to create a utopian
society citing the imbalance between the cultured rich who had made their fortunes in
industrialization and the living poor. The rebellious citizens fought with government troops during the
month of May. Forty thousand individuals were believed killed while many of the grand monuments
raised by Napoleon III were destroyed in a reaction to the rich and powerful who enjoyed them. In
1872 the Commune collapsed.
The French Academy of Painting and Sculpture maintained its hold over artistic production. The
jurors at the annual Salon continued to exhibit the work of artists of the classical Academic style such
as the painter William Bougereau.
Defining Impressionism
In 1874 fifty-five artists held the first independent exhibition of Impressionist art. Amongst the
painters were Manet, Monet, Cézanne, Pissarro, Renoir, Degas, and Morisot, who had their works
rejected by the jury of the annual exhibition of the French Academy, the Salon. To the critic Louis
Leroy the reason for their rejection was simple, and Monet’s painting, Impression Sunrise, was a
perfect example. Leroy, like the jury at the Academy, noted that the work was sketchy, unfinished.
Within a year, the term Impressionism was applied to the works of the modern artists who, in
response to their refusal, began holding the first of eight annual exhibitions in 1874 at the studio of
the Paris photographer, Nadar.
Today many individuals, even those without artistic training, will recognize the term Impressionism.
However, remember that the term as it was applied in the 1870s was derogatory. Most people felt
that the artists were unable to draw, and the use of pure color was vulgar. In fact, the Impressionist
artists broke almost every rule that came out of the French Academy. Their images of the new urban
areas of Paris did not evoke any moral lesson as David had taught. Their work did not even include
idealized images nor did they base their rendering within the credible Renaissance tradition of
balance, harmony, perspective, modeling, and shading.
Introduction to Art 2A FAAH 1040 Unit 7 3
The one element that united the artists was their interest in contemporary subject matter. In fact, the
French writer, Charles Baudelaire, appealed to the artists and writers in his essay, The Painter of
Modern Life, to focus on their own time and place. The artists were all members of the bourgeoisie,
and the world they knew and painted was the new urban life in Paris and their country homes and
holidays. Their subjects included the café society, the racetrack, the Opera, the streets, and parks of
the city. The rural areas of France also appeared, but these are country homes and outings where
life is pristine and joyful. One of the newest inventions, the steam engine, shows up because it gave
the artists the freedom to move from the urban arena to the rural areas with comfort and ease.
For the women of the group, and there were only two of them, Berthe Morisot and Mary Cassatt,
their world was the world of the home and garden. Unable to sit at the café tables unattended or to
set up an easel and paint in a public place, these women relied on their own world for their
inspiration.
The introduction of Japanese art to Paris
During the period of rule under the Tokugawa Shogunate, Japanese artists developed a new type
of popular print aimed at the new merchant or middle classes: the woodblock print. These prints are
often called ukiyo-e, a term that means pictures of the floating world. Most people believe that the
term refers only to the area of the pleasure quarters in Edo (modern day Tokyo), such as the
Yoshiwara, where men would be entertained by women of the quarters. However, the term also
implies something else—impermanence. The idea of impermanence is from Buddhism and
underlines the belief in a state of being that is carefree. In addition, during this period, the Shogunate
levied high taxes on the merchants; to be able to enjoy the money that they had made in trade, these
merchants would spend it quickly to avoid paying more taxes.
Woodblock prints were the answer to creating more inexpensive books and prints around 1650. The
process of creating a woodblock print has several stages. First, the artist would produce the drawing.
This would be traced by an engraver onto wood blocks, one for each color that was to be printed.
Each color would then be applied separately to create the final print. Popular during this period were
calendars, souvenirs from Buddhist temples, single and double albums made up of prints of
landscapes, and city life in the pleasure districts.
With the establishment of the Meiji rule and the end of the Shogunate, Japan, at the insistence of the
United States, opened its doors once again to the world after being isolated for several hundred
years. The International Exposition of 1867 provided an opportunity for French collectors and artists
to see the works, which were rapidly filling up the new shops in Paris. The look of the “oriental” was
made popular by the simple lines and vivid colors of the works.
Japanese artists were familiar with European painting techniques through the introduction of books
by Dutch traders through the port of Nagasaki. Japanese artists studied these works and
incorporated perspective to create an open three-dimensional space. These new images contrasted
greatly with the more traditional Japanese use of space with its angled points of view to create a
hierarchical scale. Of the Japanese artists whose work was exhibited in Paris, Hokusai was one of
the favourites.
Edgar Degas and Claude Monet began to use steep perspectives and sharp contours without
shadows in their work, along with flat patterns of bright color. Degas is particularly noted for his
images of women in their private spaces and of the theatre, subjects common to Japanese artists.
Both Degas and Monet cut off their figures and included paraphernalia such as kimonos and fans to
add a sense of the exotic to the work and to demonstrate their knowledge of this new art. In fact,
Monet amassed a huge collection of Japanese prints going on to transform his garden at Giverny
into a large Japanese water garden complete with lily pond and bridge. The Japanese restrained use
of line, and shading was popular among the French artists of the mid-nineteenth century who were
attempting to challenge the traditional academic style that relied heavily on naturalism, modelling,
and shading. The vogue of collecting Japanese prints was another way that these avant-garde artists
challenged the Academy. Through their collections, there was a change in subject matter. While the
Academy supported large historical and mythological paintings, the landscapes and genre scenes of
the Japanese appealed to the modern artists.
Introduction to Art 2A FAAH 1040 Unit 7 4
Notice Manet’s picture, Zola, in your text. Look at the background. What do you see? Japanese
prints and a lovely Japanese folding screen. Emile Zola was a writer and art critic who not only
collected paintings from his friends who were the Impressionists, but he also collected Japanese
prints and folding screens. Notice also the etching of Mary Cassatt titled Letter with its flat spaces
and steep perspective. Examine also the picture by Monet in your text of his Waterlily Pond that was
inspired by his study and love of Japonisme.
Elements of Impressionist painting and sculpture
The pictures and the sculpture of the Impressionists differ greatly from the accepted academic
techniques and subjects prevalent within the Academy. Immaculate detail, smooth, glass-like paint
surfaces, and heroic subject matter remained paramount at the Academy, both in the subjects
students were taught and in the works accepted for exhibition at the annual Salon. The invention of
the tin paint tube and a portable easel allowed artists the freedom to paint outside in the plein air.
They would take their small canvases, already stretched and covered with a white primer called
gesso, to the villages, the fields, the cafés, where they would paint directly on the canvas. Previously,
artists had done sketches outside and returned to their studios to mark in their sketches on the
canvas, mix their paints, and work. The new study in optics and a keen interest in light and vast
spaces of bright flat color added to the new look of the pictures from mid-nineteenth century France.
Notice the two images of Rouen Cathedral in your text painted by Monet. One was painted when the
cathedral was flooded with bright sunlight while the other was painted early in the morning. Like the
Japanese artists, Monet was also interested in how light changed during the seasons, and he did
many studies of buildings and the landscape during different times of day and different months.
Summary
The middle of the eighteenth century was full of changes both culturally and politically. The Industrial
Revolution changed the lives of the people in Europe, creating innovations in both manufacturing
techniques and goods. The ability to mass-manufacture certain materials such as steel had a broad
impact on sculpture and architecture, while the struggle between classes, the workers, and the
owners resulted in new subject matter for artists such as the Social Realists. There was a new trend
towards the accurate observation of nature and the rejection of the strict style of the Academy.
Additional resources
A selected list of supplementary reading materials
Clark, T. J. 1984. The painting of modern life: Paris in the art of Manet and his followers. Princeton:
Princeton University Press.
Mason, P. 1993. History of Japanese art. New York: Prentice Hall.
Thompson, R. 2000. Impressionism: Origins, practice, reception. London: Thames and Hudson.
Audio visual materials
Mary Cassatt: A brush with independence. 2002. Washington, DC: WETA.
Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. 1989. London: BBC.
Websites
By now you should be very familiar with the course. Search through the Internet using your favourite
search engine and the key word “Impressionism.” See what you can find. Share your best
discoveries with your peers on the course discussion board.
Introduction to Art 2A FAAH 1040 Unit 8 1
Unit 8
Post-Impressionism and the Late Nineteenth
Century
Topics
Defining Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism artists
Fin de siècle developments in art
Introduction
The British art critic, Roger Fry, was the individual who gave the artists working after Impressionism
the name “Post-Impressionists.” While the Impressionists and the Post-Impressionists had much in
common, such as their admiration for Japanese prints and their interest in color and light, there were
major differences. Post-Impressionists such as Cézanne and Seurat looked to the structure and
form of the objects in the painting. Van Gogh and Munch preferred to paint the inner turmoil and
anxieties of the individual rather than a naturalistic view of the world.
Learning objectives
By the end of this unit you should be able to:
1. define Post-Impressionism;
2. describe two different approaches to Post-Impressionism and provide an example of the work of
one artist for each approach;
3. discuss the painting Sunday Afternoon on The Island of La Grande Jatte by Seurat;
4. compare and contrast two works by Vincent Van Gogh shown in your text: The Potato Eaters
and Starry Night;
5. compare Paul Gauguin’s Self Portrait with Halo with one of Van Gogh’s self-portraits illustrated in
your text;
6. describe the influence that Tahiti had on Gauguin;
7. define the symbolist movement;
8. discuss how Edvard Munch’s paintings illustrate the artist’s state of mind;
9. state three artistic developments at the end of the nineteenth century; and
10. describe how the writings of Sigmund Freud influenced the artists of the late nineteenth century.
Assigned readings
Read chapter 23, “Post-Impressionism and the Late Nineteenth Century,” in Adams.
How to proceed
1. Review the key terms and create a new flash card for each one. As you proceed through the unit
add the definition to each card.
2. Read the study notes and review the self-test questions in preparation for the readings below.
3. Read chapter 23, “Post-Impressionism and the Late Nineteenth Century,” in Adams.
4. Complete the learning activities.
5. Complete the self-test questions.
6. Review units 7 and 8 in preparation for Quiz 2.
Introduction to Art 2A FAAH 1040 Unit 8 2
7. Review the requirements for the research paper assignment.
8. Gather or order the resources required for the research paper assignment.
Key terms
Aestheticism
Art Nouveau
pointillism
Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
the Vienna Secession
Before proceeding you should review the relevant key terms. The key terms are bolded within the
course study notes but not in the Adams text, so read carefully. If you come across additional terms,
which are not listed, create a new flash card, define the additional key term, and post it to the course
discussion area.
Study notes
Defining Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism was a French art movement that lasted roughly from 1880 to 1920. The artists
of the movement showed great concern for expression, or structure and form, while rejecting the
emphasis on naturalism and the changing effects of light upon objects at different times of the day
and in different seasons. Some of the artists who were part of this movement included Paul
Cézanne, Vincent Van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Georges Seurat, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.
The British art critic Roger Fry, when the works of these artists were exhibited at the Metropolitan
Museum of Art in New York in 1910, coined the term Post-Impressionism. Fry curated the exhibition.
Post-Impressionism artists
Van Gogh, Gauguin, and Munch belong to the group of Post-Impressionists that sought to evoke the
personal, the spiritual, and the expressive in their work, while denouncing the naturalism of the
Impressionists.
Vincent Van Gogh
Van Gogh’s use of color in The Potato Eaters adds a sense of gloom and sorrow to the gathered
family members who share a simple meal. In Starry Night, Van Gogh’s swirling sky gives us a
glimpse into his mental state shortly before he took his own life.
Paul Gauguin
Gauguin rejected the urban atmosphere of the Impressionists and turned instead to the rural
communities of France with their traditional values as well as to the exotic spiritualism of Tahiti.
Edvard Munch
Edvard Munch’s The Scream is not realistic. Munch has painted an isolated distorted figure, hands
covering its ears and supporting its head. The central figure glances back to two dark figures. The
figure is afraid; notice the eyes, the wide-open mouth. It is screaming. Is it afraid of the individuals
behind it? Is it afraid of something else? This is not clear. The colors of the sky and the twisting and
bending of the river add a feeling of heightened anxiety to the image.
Gauguin and Munch both used color and line to explore the expressive qualities of paint.
Georges Seurat
Seurat’s painting, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grand Jatte, is representative of the artists
who were more concerned with structure and form than emotion. The people in the image are
enjoying their new middle-class wealth created by the Industrial Revolution seen in the distant smoke
stacks of the factories. The park they are enjoying was part of the urban renewal within Paris, a
place where urban society could enjoy nature. This is a visual record of the new Parisian middle
Introduction to Art 2A FAAH 1040 Unit 8 3
class with their new clothes and their proper manners. Unlike a village scene, they do not know one
another. They go separate ways enjoying a lovely afternoon. Seurat’s image also owes a depth to
new studies in optics. In this work, as in others, the artist places either contrasting or bright pure
color next to one another to either intensify or nullify the other. This is called pointillism. Our eye or
brain, current scientists do not know which one, mixes the colors and creates what we see.
Paul Cézanne
Even though Paul Cézanne painted directly from nature, like the Impressionists, he did not want to
capture a fleeting moment in time nor did he want the objects he was painting to appear floating or
transitory. Cézanne wanted the objects to appear solid and structured. He became preoccupied with
still lifes and landscapes and analyzed variations in tone and color as well as the geometric forms of
the cylinder, the sphere, and the cone that made up the subjects of his work.
Fin de siècle developments in art
Aestheticism was a movement in art and literature that began in late nineteenth century England.
The movement lasted from 1868 to 1901 during the Victorian era (the reign of Queen Victoria, 1839–
1901). The artists and writers who participated in the Aesthetic movement were anti-Victorian in their
reaction to the world. They reacted against naturalism and realism. To them, art should provide
refined sensuous pleasure and should not, in any way, embody moral teachings, sentimentality, or
usefulness. Art needs only to be beautiful. The images of the artists as well as that of the writers,
such as Noel Coward and Joseph Conrad, were highly metaphorical and suggestive, using symbols
to support layered meanings. Notice the image Solome with the Head of John the Baptist by Aubrey
Beardsley in your text. Carefully examine the symbols, such as the black widow spider, that
Beardsley has used to convey messages. The entire work with its strong lines and contrasting blacks
and whites gives a sense of beauty and horror blended together.
Art Nouveau also looked at the beautiful and the sensual but in a different way from the Aesthetics.
Art Nouveau was an international style of the 1880s and 1890s that reacted against industrially
produced goods. Art Nouveau took many forms in many different countries. Examine the staircase of
the Maison Tassel by Victor Horta in your text. This is a work typical of the movement. The lines
creating the organic forms are expressive of a movement that took as its inspiration organic
elements of the world, such as plant stalks, tendrils, and vines. In Britain, many of the most
innovative designs of the style come from the studio of Rennie Macintosh. You might want to do an
Internet search on Macintosh and the Glasgow School. In France the glass of Lalique and Galle
would be the some of the best examples of Art Nouveau.
The Symbolists were well aware of the new writings of Sigmund Freud and incorporated dream
imagery mixed with mythology to create an individual, often highly emotional or evocative, imagery.
Notice the works of Edvard Munch in your textbook. While Munch is listed along with Van Gogh and
Gauguin as an example of a Post-Impressionist artist, it is in the area of deeper inner meaning and
the theories of Freud that Munch’s work proves profound. Notice again The Scream. The image is,
today, as it was when it was painted, a symbol of personal angst.
Other symbolist artists, more connected perhaps, are Gustave Moreau, Odilon Redon, and Pierre
Puvis de Chavannes. Moreau’s Galatea is illustrated in your text as an image of sexual longing, of
unreturned love.
Summary
The artists of the Post-Impressionist movement that included the Symbolists, the Aesthetics, and
those working in the style of Art Nouveau, reacted against the earlier style, Impressionism.
Impressionist artists observed the daily lives of the urban rich, and they observed and recorded the
effect that changing seasons and times of day had on objects. The Post-Impressionists rejected
sheer observation and turned instead to creating images related to their own inner psyche based on
the contemporary writings of Sigmund Freud.
Introduction to Art 2A FAAH 1040 Unit 8 4
Additional resources
A selected list of supplementary reading materials
Dorra, H. 1995. Symbolist art theories: A critical anthology. Davis, CA: University of California Press.
Greenhalgh, P. 2000. Art nouveau, 1890–1914. New York: Harry N. Abrams.
Lucie-Smith, E. 1985. Symbolist art. London: Thames and Hudson.
Audio visual resources
Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. 1989. London: BBC.
Websites
By now you should be very familiar with the course. Search on the Internet using your favorite search
engine and the key word “Post Impressionism.” See what you can find. If you have access to the
Internet, share your best discovery with your peers on the course discussion board.
Introduction to Art 2A FAAH 1040 Unit13 1
Unit 13
Feminist Art
Topic
Feminist approaches to art and its history
Introduction
Throughout this course a few women and their artistic endeavors have been discussed. The
percentage of women included in most introductory art history surveys has increased since the
1980s, but prior to this time no women were included. In fact, there were few women instructors at
art colleges or universities, and if you went to an art gallery you would not see work by women but
images of women. In 1969 a group of women led by Judy Chicago set out to challenge these
disparities. This unit of your text examines some of the accomplishments of the woman artists.
Learning objectives
This is an introduction into how women artists have created works to both celebrate women from the
past and release women as being objects of male-dominated society.
Assigned readings
Read “Feminist Art” in chapter 29, from “Judy Chicago and The Dinner Party” to “Plus ça change,” in
Adams.
How to proceed
1. Use this week to consolidate your understanding of all the course material thus far. This will help
you in your preparation for the final exam.
2. Read the study notes and review the self-test questions in preparation for the readings below.
3. Read chapter 29, “Feminist Art” from “Judy Chicago and The Dinner Party” to “Plus ça change,”
in Adams.
4. Complete the learning activities.
5. Complete the self-test questions.
6. To consolidate your understanding of the course content and prepare for the final exam, review
all course materials including the flash cards, self-tests, and learning activities that you have
completed for each unit.
7. Complete the sample examination.
8. Submit the course evaluation.
9. Take the final exam
Key terms
There are no key terms for this unit.
Introduction to Art 2A FAAH 1040 Unit13 2
Study notes
Feminist approaches to art and its history
Judy Chicago and The Dinner Party
Judy Chicago was teaching in California when, like many of her other colleagues, she wanted to
rectify the history of art which, at the time, included no women in its canon. Were there women to be
celebrated? And if so, why didn’t we know about them? The Dinner Party set about, as an early
piece of feminist art, to celebrate the lives of women who had contributed much to society. The
installation is a triangular table, approximately 14 metres long on each side, with place settings for 39
women, including Artemesia Gentileschi, Georgia O’Keefe, Sappho, and the Primordial Goddess.
Each setting consists of a plate and a goblet set on embroidered runners. The table stands on a tile
floor with the names of 999 other notable women inscribed in tile.
The Dinner Party is a celebration of women’s achievements and their art, mediums that were
relegated to the sidelines and labelled craft during the Renaissance. At the time, craft was a
derogatory term implying a practice that was not associated with the liberal arts. In The Dinner Party,
Chicago and the individuals who collaborated with her to create the project not only resurrected
various mediums but also underscored the idea that feminist artists do not have to use the male
mediums, such as painting, to be valid. Chicago did many other installations that are not included in
your text; go to the Internet to explore these. They include but are not limited to, Woman’s House,
The Birth Project, and the Holocaust Project.
Kiki Smith
Kiki Smith uses bronze, paper, and wax to create sculptures related to the body. Her figures range
from the miniature to the monumental, from monochromatic imagery, to bright vivid works. Smith
liked the visceral, sensual quality of these materials. By mixing the traditional with the nontraditional,
she created transitory effects by wrapping material like bronze with tissue paper or by juxtaposing
diverse materials in different works. Her goal was to explore the possibilities of the body as both
subject and object.
Maya Ying Lin: The Women’s Table
Maya Lin came to prominence with her minimalist site-specific monument, The Vietnam Veteran’s
Memorial for Washington, DC. The monument, illustrated in another section of your text, fulfilled all
of the requirements of the commissioning body. It did not celebrate war, and its reflective nature was
part of the goal. So successful was the installation that Lin was invited to create other memorials and
monuments for events, such as the Civil Rights Movement.
On Thursday, 26 October 1995, Lin unveiled the Women’s Table on the grounds of Yale University,
her alma mater. Observing the National Young Women’s Day of Action with singsongs and
speeches around the Women’s Table, the young women of Yale celebrated the memory of Rosie
Junenez, the first woman known to have died from an illegal abortion in 1977.
Summary
First-generation feminist artists looked back into history and recovered the names of women and
their artwork that had been forgotten by male historians. They rejected the fine art mediums so
prevalent in the male-dominated art world and turned again to the mediums used by women. Judy
Chicago’s Dinner Party media included embroidery and china painting among others. Second- and
third-generation artists, such as Kiki Smith, examined the female body from the context of the female
gaze. Others, such as Maya Lin, created monumental works of nonfigurate, or minimalist, sculpture
to celebrate victims—of war, of racism, or of sexism. In the Women’s Table Lin calls attention to the
fact that women have, in the past and could in the future, lose control over their own bodies as
abortion legislation vacillates.
Introduction to Art 2A FAAH 1040 Unit13 3
Additional resources
A select list of supplemental reading material
Chadwick, W. 2002. Women, art, and society. London: Thames and Hudson.
Chadwick, W. and T. Latimer. 2003. The modern woman revisited: Paris between the wars.
Paterson, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Chicago, J. 1993. Through the flower: My struggle as a woman artist. New York: Penguin.
Guerilla Girls. 1998. The Guerilla Girls’ bedside companion to the history of Western art. New York:
Penguin.
Malone, M. 2003. Maya Lin: Architect and artist. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishing.
Audio visual resources
Lin, Maya. 1995. A Strong Clear Vision. Santa Monica, CA: American Film Foundation, Saunders
and Mock Productions.
Websites
An enormous number of websites have evolved to compensate for the lack of material in
standardized texts or in video. Begin by doing a simple Internet search using “women artists.”

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